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Neurología Mancha-Centro

Servicio de Neurología del Area Mancha Centro - Hosp. General Mancha Centro y Hosp. General de Tomelloso

Blog de Neurologia Post New Entry

¿Qué es el ICTUS y cómo detectarlo a tiempo?

Posted by Enrique Botia Paniagua - Jefe de Neurología HGMC on May 25, 2014 at 2:10 PM


El ICTUS es una alteración de inicio brusco de la circulación cerebral que afecta a una zona localizada del cerebro. Puede producirse por una disminución del flujo sanguíneo cerebral (ictus isquémico, o infarto cerebral, trombosis o embolia) o por la rotura de un vaso sanguíneo (ictus hemorrágico o hemorragia o derrame cerebral).

Se trata de un importante problema de salud ya que es la segunda causa específica de muerte en el varón y la primera en la mujer en España. Es además el primer motivo de discapacidad en la persona adulta y la segunda causa de demencia. Su frecuencia es mayor en la edad avanzada pero también puede afectar a personas jóvenes. Se sabe que 1 de cada 6 personas tendrá un ictus a lo largo de su vida.

Algunas condiciones, que llamamos factores de riesgo, aumentan la probabilidad de tener un ictus. Los más importantes son la edad, la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiacas (como la fibrilación auricular), el aumento de grasas en la sangre (colesterol y triglicéridos), el tabaquismo, el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la obesidad y la vida sedentaria.

El ictus es una urgencia puesto que existen tratamientos que pueden evitar sus consecuencias si son aplicados por un neurólogo experto en las primeras horas del ictus. El tiempo de demora en acudir a urgencias es crucial. Gran parte de los retrasos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento se podrían evitar si el paciente, los familiares, o los testigos, supieran reconocer el ictus y llamar a los servicios de Emergencias.

Cualquier persona es capaz de identificar que alguien está sufriendo un ictus con una prueba rápida y sencilla, en tres pasos, y en menos de un minuto. Es suficiente comprobar si al sonreír la boca se desvía, si al levantar ambos brazos uno de ellos cae hacia abajo, o si al intentar hablar no es capaz de pronunciar de forma coherente una frase sencilla. Aquí puedes ver un fantástico vídeo que lo explica (merece la pena aprenderse la canción).  Ver en Youtube 


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Uno solo de los siguientes síntomas requiere una llamada al servicio de Emergencias (en España el 112 ó el 061 dependiendo de la Comunidad Autónoma):

    • Pérdida de fuerza repentina en la cara, brazo ó pierna de un lado del cuerpo.
    • Alteración repentina de la sensibilidad, con sensación de “acorchamiento u hormigueo” de la cara, brazo ó pierna de un lado del cuerpo.
    • Trastorno repentino del habla, con dificultad para expresarse con palabras o comprender lo que otros dicen.
    • Pérdida brusca de visión parcial o total en uno o ambos ojos.
    • Dolor de cabeza súbito de intensidad totalmente inhabitual y sin causa aparente.
    • Sensación de vértigo, desequilibrio si se acompaña de cualquiera de los síntomas anteriores.


© Texto - Actualizado en Noviembre 2015  - Enrique Botia Paniagua.

Categories: Cerebrovascular

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